The paper highlights various issues relating to sanitation solutions such as reasons for failure septic tanks systems and associated pollute ground water. On the other hand, flush toilet system and the sewage system, which goes with modern day personal hygiene and cleanliness, are part of the environmental problem and not the solution. Consider the huge amount of clean water that is used to carry a small quantity of human excreta, S.Vishwanath and Chitra Vishwanath titled “Composting toilets – the future of sanitation?” writes that in such a scenario one emerging solution is a dry composting toilet.
“Understanding the Urban Poor's Vulnerabilities in Sanitation and Water Supply ", is an article written by Barbara Evans published in July 1-6, 2007 by of the Center for Sustainable Urban Development. This paper argues that one of the root causes of this exclusion has been the long-standing inability of utility and city managers and their advisers to plan and implement water and sanitation systems which respond to the reality of the lives of the urban poor.
“CPHEEO manuals” is developed and published by The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), is Technical Wing of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, and deals with the matters related to urban water supply and sanitation including solid waste management in the country. The Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, is nodal Ministry in charge of various aspects of Urban Development including Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in the Country.
To draw lessons from the experience of RSMs and PCs operating in various states, and to formulate sustainable and replicable designs for the future, UNICEF commissioned “TARU Leading Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centres – An Evaluation. This paper presents the results of an evaluation study of Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) and Production Centres (PCs) in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal in 1999. UNICEF had supported the RSM and PC initiative in these states since 1991. The key issue that was analysed by the study was the ability of RSMs and PCs to promote affordable toilets in rural areas in a financially sustainable manner.
"Beyond Construction: Use by All" is a collection of case studies from sanitation and hygiene promotion practitioners in South Asia, published in 2008, by WaterAid and the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.
This document has the following four case studies from India:
Sl. 10. India's national sanitation and hygiene programme: From experience to policy, West Bengal and Maharashtra models provide keys to success - Pg 126: This paper analyses the progress of the Total Sanitation Campaign being implemented in rural India, with a focus on West Bengal and Maharashtra, and draws lessons from these two states (apart from Kerala) which are in the forefront in this national campaign for total sustainable sanitation.
The safe disposal of human waste (sanitation) by building and maintaining toilets and washing hands prevents the spread of germs and is necessary for good health. This Chapter 7 “Building Toilets”, has been taken from the resource book - A Community Guide to Environmental Health, published in 2008 by the Hesperian Foundation, is a manual that looks at the various aspects of sanitation and toilet building, including understanding sanitation needs of different groups (men, women, children, disabled), planning for toilets for rural areas, cities/towns and emergencies and looks at the various toilet options available and methods to set up each one of them.
Read the manual
Poor sanitation, lack of water and related disease outbreaks are making the lives of the residents of the sprawling Korogocho slums in Nairobi even harder.
“The lack of water and improper waste disposal are a big threat to our lives due to the risk of water-borne diseases,” Nancy Wangari, a community health worker and village elder in Korogocho, told IRIN. “The threat of typhoid, cholera and other diseases from poor sanitation is real.”
Among the resolutions debated at this week's World Health Assembly in Geneva, is an historic opportunity to finally rid the world of one of its most debilitating diseases: guinea worm.
Dracunculiasis, a waterborne parasitic disease caused by the guinea worm, only remains in four countries: Mali, Ethiopia, Sudan and Ghana. If completely eradicated, guinea worm would become only the second disease wiped out by humankind -- the first since smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s. It would be a great cause for celebration.
Guinea worm is an intrusive disease.
Personal and environmental hygiene have been identified as crucial determinants in reducing the spread of Trachoma. In countries and comunities where significant improvement in personal hygiene, water supply and disposal of human and animal excreta and domestic solid waste have occured, trachoma has ceased to be a public health problem.
From Sarita Thakore Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad
Posted 27 May 2008
I work for the Centre for Environment Education. We are implementing ‘School- Water, Sanitation, Hygiene' (S-WaSH) in 21 schools of Raipur, Chhattisgarh.