Using household survey data, this paper estimates the mortality impact of improved water and sanitation access in order to evaluate the potential contribution of water and sanitation investment toward achieving the child mortality targets defined in Millennium Development Goal 4.
Providing environmentally-safe sanitation to millions of people is a significant challenge, especially in the world’s second most populated country. The task is doubly difficult in a country where the introduction of new technologies can challenge people’s traditions and beliefs.
Basic Services in Urban Slums of Delhi- A Baseline assessment of four slums in Delhi
“Understanding the Urban Poor's Vulnerabilities in Sanitation and Water Supply ", is an article written by Barbara Evans published in July 1-6, 2007 by of the Center for Sustainable Urban Development. This paper argues that one of the root causes of this exclusion has been the long-standing inability of utility and city managers and their advisers to plan and implement water and sanitation systems which respond to the reality of the lives of the urban poor.
“CPHEEO manuals” is developed and published by The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), is Technical Wing of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, and deals with the matters related to urban water supply and sanitation including solid waste management in the country. The Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, is nodal Ministry in charge of various aspects of Urban Development including Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in the Country.
The Government of India, Ministry of Urban Development developed and published the “National Urban Sanitation Policy” in 2008. The document is quite comprehensive and detailed. It lays out a vision for urban sanitation in India. It instructs states to come up with their own detailed state-level urban sanitation strategies and City Sanitation Plans. It moots the idea of totally sanitised and open-defecation cities as a target and the setting up of a multi-stakeholder City Sanitation Task Force to achieve this. Environmental considerations, public health implications and reaching the unserved and urban poor are given significant emphasis in the policy. Funding options are laid out including direct central and state support including through existing schemes, public-private partnerships, and external funding agencies. It directs that at least 20% of the funds should be earmarked towards servicing the urban poor. The Center also plans to institute awards to the best performing cities, reminiscent of the Nirmal Gram Puraskar awards for villages.
"Beyond Construction: Use by All" is a collection of case studies from sanitation and hygiene promotion practitioners in South Asia, published in 2008, by WaterAid and the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.
This document has the following four case studies from India:
Sl. 10. India's national sanitation and hygiene programme: From experience to policy, West Bengal and Maharashtra models provide keys to success - Pg 126: This paper analyses the progress of the Total Sanitation Campaign being implemented in rural India, with a focus on West Bengal and Maharashtra, and draws lessons from these two states (apart from Kerala) which are in the forefront in this national campaign for total sustainable sanitation.
"Advocacy Sourcebook: A Guide to advocacy for WSSCC co-ordinators working on the Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) campaign", published in December 2003 by WSSCC and WaterAid, is a source book that offers practical guidance on advocacy work related to water and sanitation and is a useful resource for anyone wanting to undertake advocacy work on these themes.
Read the source book (size 1.09MB)
Improvements in sanitation continue to lag behind the needs of the population and the provision of water services for a number of reasons. The water and sanitation sector has traditionally focused more on the provision of water services than sanitation facilities.Contamination of groundwater by sanitation systems also occurs in settings where centralized sewerage systems are widely in place, as is common in most industrialized countries. They are often poorly maintained and leaks contaminate groundwater with pathogens and a diverse array of household and industrial chemicals.
From Kulwant Singh, UN-HABITAT, New Delhi
Posted 28 August 2007
Under the Water for Asian Cities Programme, UN-HABITAT is working in four cities of Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore and Jabalpur) for improvement and expansion of urban water supply, sewerage and sanitation, water drainage and solid waste management. UN-HABITAT has set up a revolving fund for financing small community managed water and sanitation initiatives in the project towns of Madhya Pradesh. A set of guidelines for the revolving fund, duly endorsed by the State Government of Madhya Pradesh, have been developed for this purpose. The revolving funds are so far working quite satisfactorily.